True sparrows are a genus of birds of the family of passerines, the typical representative of which is the house sparrow. As a rule, these are small birds with a short tail and a short powerful beak.
They are distinguished by a strong, short, thick, conical, slightly bent beak, short legs armed with weak claws, rounded short wings and a short truncated or slightly notched tail.
Sparrows are characterized by sexual dimorphism, which means that males and females, as a rule, are colored differently; males are characterized by a black throat.
They are sedentary or nomadic birds, and some species are migratory. Many species are synanthropic, being closely related to humans and settling near their dwellings and settlements.
Some species of Spanish sparrow nest in huge colonies in trees, others are not related to humans.
Nests are arranged in hollows, holes, buildings, or spherical nests are built in trees. They are chicks, chicks are first fed with insects, then seeds.
4. People and real sparrows
Some species of the Spanish, Indian subspecies of the house sparrow are malicious pests of cereals, and poisonous baits are being fought with them.
Previously, the genus of true sparrows was attributed to the weaver family.
In Europe, Asia and Africa, there are 27 other classifications - from 16 to 35 species of sparrows:
- Saxaul sparrow Passer ammodendri Gould, 1872
- Somali Sparrow Passer castanopterus Blyth, 1855
- House Sparrow Passer domesticus Linnaeus, 1758)
- Yellow-bellied Sparrow Passer flaveolus Blyth, 1845
- Arabian golden sparrow Passer euchlorus Bonaparte, 1850)
- Chestnut Sparrow Passer eminibey Hartlaub, 1880)
- Passer cordofanicus Heuglin, 1871
- Southern gray-headed sparrow Passer diffusus A. Smith, 1836)
- South African sparrow Passer melanurus Statius Muller, 1776
- Parrot-billed Sparrow Passer gongonensis Oustalet, 1890)
- Gray-headed Sparrow Passer griseus Vieillot, 1817)
- Great sparrow Passer motitensis A. Smith, 1848
- Passer italiae Vieillot, 1817
- Passer insularis Sclater et Hartlaub, 1881
- Desert Sparrow Passer simplex Lichtenstein, 1823)
- Passer shelleyi Sharpe, 1891
- Mesopotamian Sparrow Passer moabiticus Tristram, 1864)
- Swahill Sparrow Passer suahelicus Reichenow, 1904
- Black-breasted Sparrow Passer hispaniolensis Temminck, 1820)
- Field sparrow Passer montanus Linnaeus, 1758
- Red Sparrow Passer rutilans Temminck, 1836)
- Passer rufocinctus Fischer et Reichenow, 1884
- Passer zarudnyi Pleske, 1896
- Yellow Sparrow Passer luteus Lichtenstein, 1823
- Svenson sparrow Passer swainsonii Ruppell, 1840)
- Tugai sparrow Passer pyrrhonotus Blyth, 1845
- Passer iagoensis Gould, 1838
In the past, the species Passer italiae was classified as a subspecies of either the brownie Passer d. italiae Vieillot, 1817), or the Spanish Passer h. italiae Temminck, 1820), and Passer cordofanicus as a subspecies of the large Passer m. cordofanicus.
On the territory of the former USSR, seven species were previously noted: brownie Passer domesticus, Indian Passer indicus, field Passer montanus, Spanish Passer hispaniolensis, saxaul Passer ammodendri, desert Passer simplex, and red Passer rutilans. Currently, the Indian sparrow is considered as a subspecies of the house sparrow Passer d. indicus.
Most of the deposited sequences belong to the house sparrow Passer domesticus, the genetically most studied representative of this genus.
Yellow Sparrow (Passer luteus)
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Somewhat smaller than a house sparrow.The upper part of the body is light gray, the stripe from the beak through the eye to the ear and throat is black, the tail and wings are brownish with light stripes, the cheeks, chest and abdomen are white with an ocher tint. In females and juveniles, the black color is replaced by brownish.
Inhabits sandy and hilly deserts with bushes or saxaul thickets. A rare resident bird. It keeps in pairs or small flocks on the ground and bushes. A large ball-shaped nest with a cylindrical entrance is placed on a tree. Clutch of 5-6 white eggs with dark spots in April - May. The voice is a short trill. It differs from other sparrows in light gray color.