Zaryanka (lat.Erithacus Rubecula) often called a robin, it is a bird even smaller than a sparrow. In adults, the color is formed by six months, the back is grayish-brown, with an olive tint, the upper tail with a reddish glow. The chest and head are pigmented orange or yellowish-red, the undertail and lower abdomen are off-white. The wings may have olive rims or yellowish flecks. In juveniles, the color is dull and expressionless. In terms of body composition, the robin is similar to a nightingale, only the tail is straight, not round. Body length is 13-16 cm, weight - up to 20 grams.
photo: Zaryanka, she is a robin
photo: Robin chick (not yet as bright as adults)
There are 8 subspecies of robin, they are distinguished by dark or light color.
Habitat, reproduction, food of the robin
The robin prefers deep and dense forests, avoids alleys and pine forests, sometimes it can be found in abandoned gardens and bushes on the banks of reservoirs. It arrives from warm regions in March, it is a spring bird. A robin's nest is made low above the ground - in hollows, stumps, under the roots. For construction, use dry leaves, stems, roots. One clutch is 5-7 eggs with light yellow or pinkish shells with brown spots. The female incubates eggs for 14 days, both parents feed the pets.
photo: Zaryanka loves to live in dense forests
The main diet of the robin is worms, insects, small spiders. In the autumn, they eat berries and seeds. It is harder for birds to eat from hanging feeders, so they feed the robins by scattering food on the ground.
photo: Zaryanka has a beautiful melodic voice. Her song is mesmerizing.
It is easy to keep in captivity, robins sing a lot, easily get used to new conditions. For the first few days, the caught robin will struggle in the cage, so it is recommended to hang it with a thick cloth. You can not give only soft food, the diet should include mealworms, insects, grains, pieces of berries. For the winter period, the cage should be placed away from the window - birds are very sensitive to hypothermia.
Interesting facts about the robin
- The robin is practically not afraid of a person, these are very curious birds,
- Moves on the ground in jumps, bowing slightly when stopping, flies rather low,
- Singing is an alternation of pure whistle with squeaky notes, often birds sing early in the morning, at dawn, that's why they got their name,
- Robin males are territorial, they will defend their place to death,
- Since the 19th century, the robin has been considered a symbol of Great Britain, it is often depicted on Christmas cards,
- There is a belief that it was the robin that helped the Virgin Mary collect brushwood for the fire to warm the baby Jesus, and maintain the fire by waving its wings. One of the burning rods burned the breast of a brave bird, it is believed that this is why a bright spot always flaunts on the breast of a robin.
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Description of the robin and the appearance of the bird
The size of the bird is small, only about 14 centimeters, the wingspan of the bird's wings reaches 20 centimeters. Robin weight is from 15 to 22 grams. Females, as usual, are slightly smaller than males.
If we talk about the color of the feathers, it has no connection with the sex of the individual. The top of the body is reddish-olive, the bottom is white. The bird's neck is framed on the sides with bluish feathers. A distinctive feature of the robin is a contrasting orange spot on the breast.
Without a story about the songs of the robin, the description of the bird will not be complete enough. Her songs are extraordinary, pure. She is loud chirps and whistles almost without interruption... Trills can be heard in the early morning, she is one of the first to sing. The concert ends at the evening dawn, and sometimes even at night. It is not for nothing that in the famous song the author of the words dedicated to this particular singing: "Robins having heard a voice."
Character and behavior
The bird appears in early spring, even before buds appear on the trees. She immediately reminds of herself with her trills. Songs are heard all day from sunrise to sunset. After the lapse of time, when the first leaves appear on the tree branches, the robin will begin to sing only in the morning and in the evening.
This bird is friends with a person and is not at all afraid of him, very often robins live right next to a residential building and when cold weather sets in, they can even fly inside... As for the proximity of the bird with its fellows, the situation is different here. The robin is a lone bird that fiercely protects its nest. The male can be incredibly aggressive towards relatives. In a fight to protect their homes, birds can fight so fiercely that up to ten percent of the birds die in a conflict.
Robin bird feeding
Insects, worms and centipedes form the basis of the robin's diet. She finds food on the ground, tearing leaves and grass. Zaryanka moves pretty quickly, mainly jumping on the ground. Also the bird can feast on berries:
In the fall, it is the berries that form the basis of the robin's nutrition.
The robin appears with us only in the spring, like all migratory birds, by the way. As soon as the robin arrives in our area, it immediately starts building its nest. A male is usually looking for a plot for future housing. He arrives in advance, and having decided on the place, protects him from other males until his female arrives.
The female builds a small nest, about seven centimeters in diameter... The female robin lays about seven eggs, which are covered with rusty dots. The birds hatch eggs for about two weeks. They both do it, alternately changing.
When chicks hatch from eggs, they are naked and black. Newborn cubs sit in the nest for another fifteen days from birth. Parents constantly feed the chicks. Feeding takes place about three hundred times a day.
The grown chicks, leaving the nest, live for a couple of weeks not far from their parents, and in most cases they only run on the ground. When danger appears, adult birds signal to the kids, and they immediately run to a secluded place. Robin chicks are very naive and inquisitive. They can easily follow a person walking in the forest.
Robin or robin lays eggs 2-3 times per season... But despite this, offspring often die. The most important task for chicks is survival in the first year, then a mature and experienced bird will live a sufficient time. But, it should be said that the average life span of a bird does not exceed two years.
Keeping a robin at home as a pet
This bird very easy to tame... This naive bird has no fear of a person and can fly up to him at a very close distance. Therefore, it has become fashionable to keep this beautiful songbird at home.
Zaryanka is quickly mastered, but still requires special attention and self-care. This little bird is very fond of water procedures, so it is necessary to install a small container with water in the cage, which needs to be changed very often. Poultry sings as well as wild birds. If the owner wants to hear trills early, he must add insect birds to the diet.
In nature, the robin performs a very necessary mission to destroy clouds of insects that devour crops, spoil trees, etc.
Proper care and creation of the necessary conditions will help the owner of the robin rejoice at the acquisition, and the bird itself will respond with gratitude and a beautiful song.
The robin, or the robin (Latin Erithacus rubecula) is a small songbird, one of the most numerous representatives of the Flycatcher family (Muscicapidae).
The total population is estimated at 137 to 332 million individuals, of which about 80% live in Europe.
In the 1920s, the robin was one of the most popular birds kept by bird song lovers in Europe. She easily tolerates content in captivity, has a sonorous voice and a friendly, trusting character.
The ancient tribes of Celts and Germans considered the robins as heralds of the dawn and one of the symbols of the sun, and later they began to symbolize the red-bearded Scandinavian god of thunder and storm Thor.
It was believed that birds that made a nest near human habitation protect it from fire, lightning and other misfortunes, bringing happiness to its owners. Destroying their nest was viewed as unheard of sacrilege and punished as severely as possible.
In the second half of the 19th century, postage Christmas cards with images of robins were popular in Britain.
At that time, legends appeared that cute birds tried to console Christ crucified on the cross and remove the thorns of a crown of thorns that had stuck into his body. In memory of this event, a red spot from a drop of the Savior's blood remained forever on their chest and neck.
Many Britons consider the robin to be the unofficial symbol of their country.
Robins are common throughout Europe, Asia Minor and western Siberia. Isolated populations live in Algeria, Tunisia and the Canary Islands. The species is not observed in Iceland, in the north of Scandinavia and in a number of regions of Russia.
The southern border of the range passes through Turkey, the south of the Crimean peninsula, the Caucasus, southeast of Azerbaijan and the north of Iran.
The European population winters in southern and western Europe, Africa and the Middle East. Some birds remain for wintering in Central and Western Europe. In the British Isles, robins are sedentary.
To date, 9 subspecies of Erithacus rubecula are known. Birds settle in mixed deciduous, coniferous forests located on plains and lowlands. They are attracted by humid areas with not very dense herbaceous vegetation and rich soil fauna.
They willingly settle in bushes, undergrowth and hedges, avoid pine forests, young and too light forests. Most of all they like spruce and alder groves.
Birds are active during the day and at dusk, during the full moon they are active at night. They usually go in search of food an hour before sunrise and return an hour after sunset.
As a rule, the robin spends the night alone, hiding among the branches of dense bushes. In winter, she hides from the cold in the hollows of trees or, if possible, in the roofs of abandoned houses, dovecotes and chicken coops. Occasionally he warms himself up near the electric lamps of street lamps.
Robins love water treatments, and in the morning they wash their feathers in dew or raindrops on the leaves.
Closer to lunch, clean birds swim in an anthill. Sometimes they carefully plant ants on their wings with their beak, so that they destroy pesky parasites.
The cleansing procedures end with sun baths. Their birds blissfully accept lying on the ground or on tree branches with a wide open beak. In the evening ablution follows on the banks of a river or stream. In winter, you have to wash on ice or in snowdrifts.
In the robin population, there are about 20% more males than females. Unpaired males, as a rule, do not occupy a certain home area or very lazily defend its borders.
They hunt separately during the day, and with the onset of dusk they gather for a joint bachelor's overnight, in which up to three dozen birds can take part. Sometimes they sleep in the area of a hospitable, but unmarried male, and in the early morning they fly in different directions for several kilometers.
The area of the hunting grounds ranges from 250 to 800 square meters. Singing is long melancholic melodies of different tempo and key, with trills and whistles. It contains many improvisations and explicit borrowings from the repertoire of the willow warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus), the songbird (Turdus philomelos) and the blackbird (Turdus merula).
The characteristic feature is that each time the chorus is slightly modified and sounds slightly different. The singer displays his arias while sitting in a shelter or in a well-lit place. Singing can be heard all day long, which is very rare among forest birds. In spring, it is especially melodic and can be heard near the nest.
The robin spends most of its time on the surface of the soil, jumping on it with its wings lowered. She often crouches and nods her tail. Outside the nesting season, the bird shows miracles of courage, expelling strangers from the territory it occupies.
With the beginning of incubation of the clutch and feeding the chicks, it becomes very careful and timid. The robins return from wintering in March or April, and fly off to warmer regions from September to November. Seasonal migrations take place only at night.
How to recognize a robin by its external signs?
On the back, these small birds have gray-green plumage. The belly is white. On the sides, on the forehead, in the area of the throat and chest, the bird is painted in a red shade. The legs of this bird are relatively long for its body size. Adults grow up to 15 centimeters in length.
Where does the robin bird live?
Its range covers the northern part of Africa, almost all of Europe and the western part of Asia. You can find the robin in Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, Finland, Italy and other countries. This bird also lives on the territory of our state.
Robin, just like all passerine birds, is not averse to taking water and dust baths.
Robin bird lifestyle and behavior
Robin birds are very fond of solitude. This manifests itself in absolutely everything. They live alone, make seasonal migrations by themselves, and get food on their own, not in flocks. The robin is one of the first to return to nesting sites after the winter months.
It is very interesting to observe the behavior of this little bird when a person approaches: it is absolutely not afraid of people and you can safely touch it. She not only does not fly away when you approach her, but she herself begins to examine you with curiosity.
Among natural habitats, he chooses forests, mostly deaf and littered. Loves damp areas. Where there are no windbreaks or dead wood, this bird cannot be found. Sometimes robins can build nests in gardens.
Usually, robins have from three to five chicks.
Diet of a bird of a robin
The main food for them is various small animals: worms, spiders, millipedes, molluscs and various insects. With the arrival of autumn and the ripening of berries, this bird can eat blackberries, elderberries, currants or mountain ash as food. It also feeds on a variety of seeds, such as spruce cones.
How is the breeding of offspring in repolov birds?
In early spring, usually in March, male robins return from wintering. And immediately resounding singing is heard, with such sounds they inform that they are ready to create a "family hearth" and breed offspring. Females arrive a little later. As soon as they arrive, they begin intensive construction of nests. They build their "dwellings" for future chicks not high from the ground, they do it in the stumps, in the cracks in the trunks of large trees. Sometimes you can find a robin nest right on the ground or next to bushes.
Robin chick dropped out of the nest in caring hands.
One female robin can lay about 5 - 6 eggs, sometimes 7 eggs. For two weeks, the bird is engaged in incubating chicks. All this time, the male carefully looks after the future "mummy", bringing her food and protecting the nest from enemy encroachments. When babies are born, they are very small and completely dependent. The first two weeks, small chicks spend in the nest, without leaving it. But after this time, they make the first flight from their parental home. For about a week they stay close to their parents, and then begin an independent life altogether. Such a rapid maturation of young animals determines the fact that robins sometimes incubate two clutches per year.
Enemies of the robins
Owls and falcons are hunting these small birds.There are also predators that attempt on the eggs and chicks of robins, these are foxes, martens, wild cats, ferrets, ermines, weasels.
The little one brings a lot of joy to people with her magical singing.
Listen to the voice of the robin
Sometimes these birds become pets because of their wonderful singing. They quickly get used to a person and willingly live at home. Only if you have decided to start a robin, then get ready for sonorous trills in the morning, including on weekends!
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